1. Amato, P. R. (2000). The consequences of divorce for adults and children. Journal of Marriage and Family, 62, 1269–1287. doi:10.1111/j.1741-3737.2000.01269.x
2. Whisman, M. A., & Uebelacker, L. A. (2006). Impairment and distress associated with relationship discord in a national sample of married or cohabiting adults. Journal of Family Psychology, 20, 369–377. doi:10.1037/0893-3184.108.40.2069
3. Amato, P. R. (2001). Children of divorce in the 1990s: An update of the Amato and Keith (1991) meta-analysis. Journal of Family Psychology, 15, 355–370. doi:10.1037/0893-3220.127.116.115
4. Cummings, E. M., & Davies, P. T. (2002). Effects of marital conflict on children: Recent advances and emerging themes in process-oriented research. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 43, 31–63. doi:10.1111/1469-7610.00003
5. Whisman, M. A., Beach, S. R. H., & Snyder, D. K. (2008). Is marital discord taxonic and can taxonic status be assessed reliably? Results from a national, representative sample of married couples. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 76, 745–755. doi:10.1037/0022-006X.76.5.745
6. Bramlett, M. D., & Mosher, W. D. (2001). First marriage dissolution, divorce, and remarriage: United States. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics.
7. Bramlett, M. D., & Mosher, W. D. (2002). Cohabitation, marriage, divorce, and remarriage in the United States. Retrieved from National Center for Health Statistics website: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/series/sr_23/sr23_022.pdf
8. Pew Research Center. (2010). The decline of marriage and rise of new families. Retrieved from http://www.pewsocialtrends.org/2010/11/18/the-decline-of-marriage-and-rise-of-new-families/
9. Martin, J. A., Hamilton, B. E., Ventura, S. J., Osterman, M. J. K., Wilson, E. C., & Matthews, T. J. (2012). Births: Final data for 2010. National Vital Statistics Reports, 61(1).
10. Carlson, M., McLanahan, S., & England, P. (2004). Union formation in fragile families. Demography, 41, 237–261. doi:10.1353/dem.2004.0012
11. Hawkins, A. J., & Erickson, S. E. (2015). Is couple and relationship education effective for lower income participants? A meta-analytic study. Journal of Family Psychology, 29, 59–68. doi:10.1037/fam0000045
12. Heath, M. (2012). One campaign under God: The campaign to promote marriage in America. New York, NY: New York University Press.
13. Administration for Children and Families. (2015). Healthy marriage and relationship education grants (No. HHS-2015-ACF-OFA-FM-0985). Retrieved from http://www.acf.hhs.gov/grants/open/foa/files/HHS-2015-ACF-OFA-FM-0985_0.pdf
14. Bir, A., Lerman, R., Corwin, E., MacIlvain, B., Beard, A., Richburg, K., & Smith, K. (2012). Impacts of a community healthy marriage initiative (OPRE Report 2012–34A). Washington, DC: Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation, Administration for Children and Families, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
15. Weiss, R. L. (1980). Strategic behavioral marital therapy: Toward a model for assessment and intervention. In J. P. Vincent (Ed.), Advances in family intervention, assessment and theory (Vol. 1, pp. 229–271). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
16. Wood, R. G., McConnell, S., Moore, Q., Clarkwest, A., & Hsueh, J. (2010). Strengthening unmarried parents’ relationships: The early impacts of Building Strong Families. Princeton, NJ: Mathematica Policy Research.
17. Hawkins, A. J., Blanchard, V. L., Baldwin, S. A., & Fawcett, E. B. (2008). Does marriage and relationship education work? A meta-analytic study. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 76, 723–734. doi:10.1037/a0012584
18. Wood, R. G., Moore, Q., & Clarkwest, A. (2011). BSF’s effects on couples who attended group relationship skills sessions: A special analysis of 15-month data (OPRE Report 2011-17). Washington, DC: Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation, Administration for Children and Families, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
19. Amato, P. R. (2014). Does social and economic disadvantage moderate the effects of relationship education on unwed couples? An analysis of data from the 15-month Building Strong Families evaluation. Family Relations, 63, 343–355. doi:10.1111/fare.12069
20. Wood, R. G., Moore, Q., Clarkwest, A., & Killewald, A. (2014). The long-term effects of Building Strong Families: A program for unmarried parents. Journal of Marriage and Family, 76, 446–463. doi:10.1111/jomf.12094
21. Wood, R. G., Moore, Q., Clarkwest, A., Killewald, A., & Monahan, S. (2012). The long-term effects of Building Strong Families: A relationship skills education program for unmarried parents, executive summary (OPRE Report 2012-28B). Washington, DC: Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation, Administration for Children and Families, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (OPRE).
22. Hsueh, J., Alderson, D. P., Lundquist, E., Michalopoulos, C., Gubits, D., Fein, D., & Knox, V. (2012). The Supporting Healthy Marriage evaluation: Early impacts on low-income families (OPRE Report 2012-11). Washington, DC: Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation, Administration for Children and Families, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
23. Lundquist, E., Hsueh, J., Lowenstein, A. E., Faucetta, K., Gubits, D., Michalopoulos, C., & Knox, V. (2014). A family-strengthening program for low-income families: Final impacts from the Supporting Healthy Marriage evaluation (OPRE Report 2014-09A). Washington, DC: Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation, Administration for Children and Families, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
24. Cowan, P. A., & Cowan, C. P. (2014). Controversies in couple relationship education (CRE): Overlooked evidence and implications for research and policy. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 20, 361–383. doi:10.1037/law0000025
25. Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
26. Williamson, H. C., Altman, N., Hsueh, J., & Bradbury, T. N. (in press). Effects of relationship education on couple communication and satisfaction: A randomized controlled trial with low-income couples. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology.
27. Dion, M. R., Avellar, S. A., & Clary, E. (2010). The Building Strong Families Project: Implementation of eight programs to strengthen unmarried parent families. Princeton, NJ: Mathematica Policy Research.
28. Johnson, M. D. (2012). Healthy marriage initiatives: On the need for empiricism in policy implementation. American Psychologist, 67, 296–308. doi:10.1037/a0027743
29. Johnson, M. D., & Bradbury, T. N. (2015). Contributions of social learning theory to the promotion of healthy relationships: Asset or liability? Journal of Family Theory & Review, 7, 13–27. doi:10.1111/jftr.12057
30. Rossi, P. (1987). The Iron Law of evaluation and other metallic rules. Research in Social Problems and Public Policy, 4, 3–20.
31. Conger, R. D., Rueter, M. A., & Elder, G. H. (1999). Couple resilience to economic pressure. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 76, 54–71. doi:10.1037/0022-3518.104.22.168
32. Gibson-Davis, C. M., Edin, K., & McLanahan, S. (2005). High hopes but even higher expectations: The retreat from marriage among low-income couples. Journal of Marriage and Family, 67, 1301–1312. doi 10.1111/j.1741-3737.2005.00218.x
33. Smock, P. J., Manning, W. D., & Porter, M. (2005). “Everything’s there except money”: How money shapes decisions to marry among cohabitors. Journal of Marriage and Family, 67, 680–696. doi:10.1111/j.1741-3737.2005.00162.x
34. Trail, T. E., & Karney, B. R. (2012). What’s (not) wrong with low-income marriages? Journal of Marriage and Family, 74, 413–427. doi:10.1111/j.1741-3737.2012.00977.x
35. Gomel, J. N., Tinsley, B. J., Parke, R. D., & Clark, K. M. (1998). The effects of economic hardship on family relationships among African American, Latino, and Euro-American families. Journal of Family Issues, 19, 436–467. doi:10.1177/019251398019004004
36. Conger, R. D., Elder, G. H., Lorenz, F. O., Conger, K. J., Simons, R. L., Whitbeck, L. B., . . . Melby, J. N. (1990). Linking economic hardship to marital quality and instability. Journal of Marriage and Family, 52, 643–656. doi:10.2307/352931
37. Falconier, M. K., & Epstein, N. B. (2010). Relationship satisfaction in Argentinean couples under economic strain: Gender differences in a dyadic stress model. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 27, 781–799. doi:10.1177/0265407510373260
38. Falconier, M. K., & Epstein, N. B. (2011). Female-demand/male-withdraw communication in Argentinian couples: A mediating factor between economic strain and relationship distress. Personal Relationships, 18, 586–603. doi:10.1111/j.1475-6811.2010.01326.x
39. Vinokur, A. D., Price, R. H., & Caplan, R. D. (1996). Hard times and hurtful partners: How financial strain affects depression and relationship satisfaction of unemployed persons and their spouses. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 71, 166–179. doi:10.1037/0022-3522.214.171.124
40. Williamson, H. C., Karney, B. R., & Bradbury, T. N. (2013). Financial strain and stressful events predict newlyweds’ negative communication independent of relationship satisfaction. Journal of Family Psychology, 27, 65–75. doi:10.1037/a0031104
41. Taylor, Z. E., Larsen-Rife, D., Conger, R. D., Widaman, K. F., & Cutrona, C. E. (2010). Life stress, maternal optimism, and adolescent competence in single mother, African American families. Journal of Family Psychology, 24, 468–477. doi:10.1037/a0019870
42. Conger, R. D., Wallace, L. E., Sun, Y., Simons, R. L., McLoyd, V. C., & Brody, G. H. (2002). Economic pressure in African American families: A replication and extension of the family stress model. Developmental Psychology, 38, 179–193. doi:10.1037/0012-16126.96.36.199
43. Conger, R. D., Ge, X., Elder, G. H., Lorenz, F. O., & Simons, R. L. (1994). Economic stress, coercive family process, and developmental problems of adolescents. Child Development, 65, 541–561. doi:10.2307/1131401
44. Conger, R. D., Conger, K. J., Elder, G. H., Lorenz, F. O., Simons, R. L., & Whitbeck, L. B. (1993). Family economic stress and adjustment of early adolescent girls. Developmental Psychology, 29, 206–219. doi:10.1037/0012-16188.8.131.52
45. McLoyd, V. C. (1998). Socioeconomic disadvantage and child development. American Psychologist, 53, 185–204. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.53.2.185
46. Wickrama, K. A. S., Surjadi, F. F., Lorenz, F. O., Conger, R. D., & O’Neal, C. W. (2012). Family economic hardship and progression of poor mental health in middle-aged husbands and wives. Family Relations: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Family Studies, 61, 297–312. doi:10.1111/j.1741-3729.2011.00697.x
47. Wickrama, K. A. S., Kwag, K. H., Lorenz, F. O., Conger, R. D., & Surjadi, F. F. (2010). Dynamics of family economic hardship and the progression of health problems of husbands and wives during the middle years: A perspective from rural Mid-West. Journal of Aging and Health, 22, 1132–1157. doi:10.1177/0898264310377353
48. Mani, A., Mullainathan, S., Shafir, E., & Zhao, J. (2013, August 30). Poverty impedes cognitive function. Science, 341, 976–980. doi:10.1126/science.1238041
49. Shah, A. K., Mullainathan, S., & Shafir, E. (2012, November 2). Some consequences of having too little. Science, 338, 682–685. doi:10.1126/science.1222426
50. Kemple, J. J. (2008). Career academies: Long-term impacts on labor market outcomes, educational attainment, and transitions to adulthood. New York, NY: MDRC.
51. Schochet, P. Z., Burghart, J., & Glazerman, S. (2001). National Job Corps Study: The impacts of Job Corps on participants’ employment and related outcomes. Princeton, NJ: Mathematica Policy Research.
52. Mamun, A. A. (2008). Effects of employment on marriage: Evidence from a randomized study of the Job Corps program. Washington, DC: Mathematica Policy Research.
53. Bos, J. M., Huston, A. C., Granger, R. C., Duncan, G. J., Brock, T., & McLoyd, V. C. (1999). New hope for people with low incomes: Two-year results of a program to reduce poverty and reform welfare. New York, NY: Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation.
54. Huston, A. C., Miller, C., Richburg-Hayes, L., Duncan, G. J., Eldred, C. A., Weisner, T. S. . . . Redcross, C. (2003). New Hope for families and children: Five-year results of a program to reduce poverty and reform welfare. New York, NY: Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation.
55. Gassman-Pines, A., & Yoshikawa, H. (2006). Five-year effects of an anti-poverty program on marriage among never-married mothers. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 25, 11–30. doi:10.1002/pam.20154
56. Miller, C., Knox, V., Gennetian, L. A., Dodoo, M., Hunter, J. A., & Redcross, C. (2000). Reforming welfare and rewarding work: Final report of the Minnesota Family Investment Program. New York, NY: Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation.
57. Riccio, J., Dechausay, N., Greenberg, D., Miller, C., Rucks, Z., & Verma, N. (2010). Toward reduced poverty across generations: Early findings from New York City’s Conditional Cash Transfer Program. New York, NY: MDRC.
58. Riccio, J., Dechausay, N., Miller, C., Nuñez, S., Verma, N., & Yang, E. (2013). Conditional cash transfers in New York City: The continuing story of the Opportunity NYC-Family Rewards demonstration. New York, NY: MDRC.
59. Wilcox, W. B. (2011). The Great Recession and marriage. Retrieved from National Marriage Project website: http://nationalmarriageproject.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/NMP-GreatRecession.pdf
60. Gennetian, L. A., Crosby, D. A., Huston, A. C., & Lowe, E. D. (2004). Can child care assistance in welfare and employment programs support the employment of low-income families? Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 23, 723–743.
61. Bodenmann, G., Hilpert, P., Nussbeck, F. W., & Bradbury, T. N. (2014). Enhancement of couples’ communication and dyadic coping by a self-directed approach: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 82, 580–591. doi:10.1037/a0036356
62. Karney, B. R., & Bradbury, T. N. (2005). Contextual influences on marriage. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 14, 171–174. doi:10.1111/j.0963-7214.2005.00358.x