identity traps: how to think about race & policing

by phillip atiba goff
May 24, 2017


Supplemental Material

Author Affiliation

Phillip Atiba Goff, President, Center for Policing Equity, Franklin A. Thomas Professor in Policing Equity, John Jay College of Criminal Justice. Corresponding author’s e-mail: admin@policingequity.org – www.policingequity.org

References

1. Ramsey, D. (2015, August 7). Tracking police violence a year after Ferguson. FiveThirtyEight: Politics. Retrieved from http://fivethirtyeight.com/features/ferguson-michael-brown-measuring-police-killings/

2. Dovidio, J. F., Gaertner, S. E., Kawakami, K., & Hodson, G. (2002). Why can’t we just get along? Interpersonal biases and interracial distrust. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 8, 88–102.

3. LaPiere, R. T. (1934). Attitudes vs. actions. Social Forces, 13(2), 230–237.

4. Wicker, A. W. (1969). Attitudes versus actions: The relationship of verbal and overt behavioral responses to attitude objects. Journal of Social Issues, 25(4), 41–78.

5. Goff, P. A., Steele, C. M., & Davies, P. G. (2008). The space between us: Stereotype threat and distance in interracial contexts. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 94, 91–107.

6. Richeson, J. A., & Shelton, J. N. (2003). When prejudice does not pay: Effects of interracial contact on executive function. Psychological Science, 14, 287–290.

7. Goff, P. A. (2013). A measure of justice: What policing racial bias research reveals. In F.C. Harris & R.C. Lieberman (Eds.), Beyond discrimination: Racial inequality in a postracist era (pp. 157–185). New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation.

8. Vorauer, J. D., Main, K. J., & O’Connell, G. B. (1998). How do individuals expect to be viewed by members of lower status groups? Content and implications of meta-stereotypes. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75, 917–937.

9. Brewer, M. B. (1988). A dual process model of impression formation. In T. K. Srull & R. S. Wyer (Eds.), Advances in social cognition (Vol. 1, pp. 1–36). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

10. Devine, P. G. (1989). Stereotypes and prejudice: Their automatic and controlled components. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 56, 5–18.

11. Fiske, S. T. (1993). Controlling other people: The impact of power on stereotyping. American Psychologist, 48, 621–628.

12. Fiske, S. T., & Taylor, S. E. (2013). Social cognition: From brains to culture. London, United Kingdom: Sage.

13. Fiske, S. T., & Neuberg, S. L. (1990). A continuum model of impression formation, from category-based to individuating processes: Influence of information and motivation on attention and interpretation. In M. P. Zanna (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 23, pp. 1–74). New York, NY: Academic Press.

14. Eberhardt, J. L., Goff, P. A., Purdie, V. J., & Davies, P. G. (2004). Seeing Black: Race, crime, and visual processing. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 87, 876–893.

15. Ellemers, N., Spears, R., & Doosje, B. (2002). Self and social identity. Annual Review of Psychology, 53, 161–186.

16. Steele, C. M., & Aronson, J. (1995). Stereotype threat and the intellectual test performance of African Americans. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69, 797–811.

17. Steele, C. M., Spencer, S. J., & Aronson, J. (2002). Contending with group image: The psychology of stereotype and social identity threat. In M. P. Zanna (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 34, pp. 379–440). New York, NY: Academic Press.

18. Tajfel, H., & Turner, J. C. (1979). An integrative theory of intergroup conflict. In W. G. Austin & S. Worchel (Eds.), The social psychology of intergroup relations (pp. 33–47). Monterey, CA: Brooks/Cole.

19. Kahneman, D. (2011). Thinking, fast and slow. New York, NY: Macmillan.

20. Correll, J., Park, B., Judd, C. M., Wittenbrink, B., Sadler, M. S., & Keesee, T. (2007). Across the thin blue line: Police officers and racial bias in the decision to shoot. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 92, 1006–1023.

21. Goff, P. A., Eberhardt, J. L., Williams, M. J., & Jackson, M. C. (2008). Not yet human: Implicit knowledge, historical dehumanization, and contemporary consequences. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 94, 292–306.

22. Blair, I. V. (2002). The malleability of automatic stereotypes and prejudice. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 6, 242–261.

23. Ghumman, S., & Barnes, C. M. (2013). Sleep and prejudice: A resource recovery approach. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 43(Suppl. 2), E166–E178.

24. Greenwald, A. G., McGhee, D. E., & Schwartz, J. L. K. (1998). Measuring individual differences in implicit cognition: The implicit association test. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 1464–1480.

25. Sim, J. J., Correll, J., & Sadler, M. S. (2013). Understanding police and expert performance: When training attenuates (vs. exacerbates) stereotypic bias in the decision to shoot. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 39, 291–304.

26. Greenwald, A. G., Poehlman, T. A., Uhlmann, E. L., & Banaji, M. R. (2009). Understanding and using the Implicit Association Test: III. Meta-analysis of predictive validity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 97, 17–41.

27. Nosek, B. A., Banaji, M., & Greenwald, A. G. (2002). Harvesting implicit group attitudes and beliefs from a demonstration web site. Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice, 6, 101–115.

28. Nosek, B. A., Smyth, F. L., Hansen, J. J., Devos, T., Lindner, N. M., Ranganath, K. A., . . . Banaji, M. R. (2007). Pervasiveness and correlates of implicit attitudes and stereotypes. European Review of Social Psychology, 18, 36–88.

29. Plant, E. A., Peruche, B. M., & Butz, D. A. (2005). Eliminating automatic racial bias: Making race non-diagnostic for responses to criminal suspects. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 41, 141–156.

30. Blair, I. V., Ma, J. E., & Lenton, A. P. (2001). Imagining stereotypes away: The moderation of implicit stereotypes through mental imagery. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 81, 828–841.

31. Dasgupta, N., & Greenwald, A. G. (2001). On the malleability of automatic attitudes: Combating automatic prejudice with images of admired and disliked individuals. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 81, 800–814.

32. Karpinski, R. T. (2001). The relationship between attitudes and the Implicit Association Test. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B. Sciences and Engineering, 62(6), 2990.

33. Richeson, J. A., & Shelton, J. N. (2007). Negotiating interracial interactions: Costs, consequences, and possibilities. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 16, 316–320.

34. Richeson, J. A., Trawalter, S., & Shelton, J. N. (2005). African Americans’ implicit racial attitudes and the depletion of executive function after interracial interactions. Social Cognition, 23, 336–352.

35. Dovidio, J. F., Kawakami, K., & Gaertner, S. L. (2002). Implicit and explicit prejudice and interracial interaction. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 82, 62–68.

36. Steele, C. M. (1988). The psychology of self-affirmation: Sustaining the integrity of the self. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 21, 261–302.

37. Mendes, W. B., Blascovich, J., Lickel, B., & Hunter, S. (2002). Challenge and threat during social interactions with White and Black men. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 28, 939–952.

38. Carr, P. B., Dweck, C. S., & Pauker, K. (2012). “Prejudiced” behavior without prejudice? Beliefs about the malleability of prejudice affect interracial interactions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 103, 452–471.

39. Dweck, C. S., Chiu, C. Y., & Hong, Y. Y. (1995). Implicit theories and their role in judgments and reactions: A word from two perspectives. Psychological Inquiry, 6, 267–285.

40. Dweck, C. S., Chiu, C. Y., & Hong, Y. Y. (1995). Implicit theories: Elaboration and extension of the model. Psychological Inquiry, 6, 322–333.

41. Richeson, J. A., & Trawalter, S. (2008). The threat of appearing prejudiced and race-based attentional biases. Psychological Science, 19, 98–102.

42. Frantz, C. M., Cuddy, A. J. C., Burnett, M., Ray, H., & Hart, A. (2004). A threat in the computer: The race Implicit Association Test as a stereotype threat experience. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 30, 1611–1624.

43. President’s Task Force on 21st Century Policing. (2015). Final report of the President’s Task Force on 21st Century Policing. Washington, DC: Office of Community Oriented Policing Services.

44. Beccaria, C. (1872). An essay on crimes and punishments: A new edition corrected. Albany, NY: Little.

45. Pratt, T. C., Cullen, F. T., Blevins, K. R., Daigle, L. E., & Madensen, T. D. (2006). The empirical status of deterrence theory: A meta-analysis. In F. T. Cullen, J. P. Wright, & K. R. Blevins (Eds.), Taking stock: The status of criminological theory (pp. 367–396). Piscataway, NJ: Transaction.

46. Thibaut, J. W., & Walker, L. (1975). Procedural justice: A psychological analysis. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

47. Thibaut, J., & Walker, L. (1978). A theory of procedure. California Law Review, 66(3), 541–566.

48. Tyler, T. R. (2006). Why people obey the law. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

49. Tyler, T. R., & Huo, Y. (2002). Trust in the law: Encouraging public cooperation with the police and courts. New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation.

50. Tyler, T. R., Sherman, L., Strang, H., Barnes, G. C., & Woods, D. (2007). Reintegrative shaming, procedural justice, and recidivism: The engagement of offenders’ psychological mechanisms in the Canberra RISE drinking-and-driving experiment. Law & Society Review, 41, 553–586.

51. Hinds, L. (2007). Building police–youth relationships: The importance of procedural justice. Youth Justice, 7, 195–209.

52. Sunshine, J., & Tyler, T. R. (2003). The role of procedural justice and legitimacy in shaping public support for policing. Law & Society Review, 37, 513–548.

53. Tyler, T. R. (2004). Enhancing police legitimacy. The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 593(1), 84–99.

54. Goff, P. A., Epstein, L. M., & Reddy, K. S. (2013). Crossing the line of legitimacy: The impact of cross-deputization policy on crime reporting. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 19, 250–258.

55. Reisig, M. D., & Lloyd, C. (2009). Procedural justice, police legitimacy, and helping the police fight crime: Results from a survey of Jamaican adolescents. Police Quarterly, 12, 42–62.

56. Goff, P. A., Epstein, L. M., Mentovich, A., & Reddy, K. S. (2013). Illegitimacy is dangerous: How authorities experience and react to illegitimacy. Psychology, 4, 340–344. doi:10.4236/psych.2013.43A049

57. Trinkner, R., Tyler, T. R., & Goff, P. A. (2016). Justice from within: The relations between a procedurally just organizational climate and police organizational efficiency, endorsement of democratic policing, and officer well-being. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 22, 158–172.

58. Gau, J. M., & Brunson, R. K. (2010). Procedural justice and order maintenance policing: A study of inner-city young men’s perceptions of police legitimacy. Justice Quarterly, 27, 255–279.

59. Tyler, T. R., & Fagan, J. (2008). Legitimacy and cooperation: Why do people help the police fight crime in their communities? Ohio State Journal of Criminal Law, 6, 231–275.

60. Weitzer, R. (2004, September 26). Why prostitution initiative misses. San Francisco Chronicle, p. E3.

61. Weitzer, R., & Tuch, S. A. (2004). Race and perceptions of police misconduct. Social Problems, 51, 305–325.

62. Ramsey, C., & Robinson, L. (2015). Interim report of the President’s Task Force on 21st Century Policing. Washington, DC: Office of Community Oriented Policing Services.

63. Anderson, G. S., Courtney, A., Plecas, D., & Chamberlin, C. (2005). Multi-tasking behaviors of general duty police officers. Police Practice and Research, 6, 39–48.

64. Lipsky, M. (1979). Street level bureaucracy: Dilemmas of the individual in public services. New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation.

65. Thomas, J. C. (1986). Between citizen and city: Neighborhood organizations and urban politics in Cincinnati. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas.

66. Collins, P. A., & Gibbs, A. C. C. (2003). Stress in police officers: A study of the origins, prevalence and severity of stress-related symptoms within a county police force. Occupational Medicine, 53, 256–264.

67. O’Neill, J. L., & Cushing, M. A. (1991, September). The impact of shift work on police officers. Washington, DC: Police Executive Research Forum.

68. Sidanius, J., & Pratto, F. (2004). Social dominance theory: A new synthesis. New York, NY: Psychology Press.

69. Fachner, G., & Carter, S. (2014). Collaborative reform model: Final assessment report of the Las Vegas Metropolitan Police Department. Retrieved from Community Oriented Policing Services Office website: https://ric-zai-inc.com/Publications/cops-p287-pub.pdf

70. Mazerolle, L., Bennett, S., Antrobus, E., & Eggins, E. (2012). Procedural justice, routine encounters and citizen perceptions of police: Main findings from the Queensland Community Engagement Trial (QCET). Journal of Experimental Criminology, 8, 343–367.

71. Mazerolle, L., Antrobus, E., Bennett, S., & Tyler, T. R. (2013). Shaping citizen perceptions of police legitimacy: A randomized field trial of procedural justice. Criminology, 51, 33–63.

72. Smith, M., & Austin, R. L., Jr. (2015, May 18). Launching the police data initiative [Blog post]. Retrieved from https://www.whitehouse.gov/blog/2015/05/18/launching-police-data-initiative

73. Center for Policing Equity. (2015). National Justice Database. Retrieved March 7, 2017, from http://policingequity.org/national-justice-database